The private banking system is essential for the economy in its more different aspects, notadamente as intermediate financier and supplier of credit. But, in many circumstances it could be inefficient and not to contribute in way adjusted for the good course them businesses them companies and them families. At these moments where they occur imperfections in the private banking system are that the importance of the public banks if becomes more evident. Moreover, the banks of the government are very important exactly when the economy is walking in normality, mainly in the suppliment of credit in some segments where the private banks do not want to enter. They can be mentioned at least three situations where the Brazilian public banks sobressaem with regard to the private ones: In the regional development, Sectorial (agriculture, habitation, industrial, infrastructure) and it offers in general of credit at the moments of crises when generally the private banks if retract in its operations of credits.

In recent work, IPEA (Institute of Applied Economic Research) traced the main points that base the importance of the financial system public Brazilian for the economy. In this work the papers exerted for the three main Brazilian public banks are detached. These banks are responsible for deep that e, reason to generate low return for its proprietors is of cost more in account for the loans. The Bank of Brazil generates Deep of the Development of the Center the West, the Federal government saving bank is responsible for the Siking fund For Time of Servios (FGTS) and the BNDES is responsible for the Deep one of Support To Trabalhador (FAT). The two last ones are sources of high values that pass them respective banks to carry through its operations of credit, evidently considering the legal limits of application of these resources. In recent years when the Brazilian economy tried a growth reasonable, the public banks had had paper of prominence in offer of credit, also at the crisis moment in 2009.