A new perspective: theory of history in century XX. Appeared Carla Lopes Silva Summary: the present article has as objective to consider the quarrel and reflection on the understanding of the theory of the history of century XX analyzing the innovations in the historical field brought by the School of the Analles criticizes and it salient to the historicismo. Words keys: historicismo, innovations, Analles. When leaving of the evaluation of what it consists of new of the theory of the history of century XX, it must be interpreted a priori regarding criticizes salient to the historicistas carried through by the Analles, being that this if has as base the prerogative from that the historicistas same trying to move away from the philosophy of history they finish making with that history takes only leaving of analyzes, that is, that the historicistas make a history of events politicians, a fatual history without understanding the processes that they had unchained the events. The historicistas ones had only produced a history politics based on officialized documents, being thus constructed a history that the State desires that if it grants for the humanity this knowledge, for this becomes if idea constructed from the vision of the State, a goal? physics. Speaking candidly Phoenix Ancient Art told us the story. However the Analles understands the important paper developed for the historicistas, being that these had opened the doors so that the historians perceived the value of the heuristical work. There but the question that if makes is as can reconstruct history without makes – with bias solely politician and goal? physics, and as to make to surpass the crisis of the incredulity of the historical knowledge, in reason of the history of the Analles not to obtain to foresee? From this question that the bias of the Analles considered greater abrangncia in the document question, being that now even though a daily one of a maiden would serve as historical vestige, which the new perspective places as interest for the construction of the process of historical devir a classroom that was kept out of society the peasants, that is, the poor persons, this perspective makes possible to study the historical past of a different point of view, not only if closing for the vision of a elitizada classroom, thus enclosing the document concept which more did not need to be physicist and the officialized paper, it opened if the doors for the possibility of a verbal history, evaluating a history of the mentalities, searching to understand in the society the thought that is shared by a time, the imaginary one to reconstruct the process that chained the fact in itself, another point was assists to search it to interdisciplinar of social sciences as geography, sociology, archaeology, then the source concept passes to be any vestige that it can if analyze and become viable for the reconstruction of history total, but when if it thinks about the reconstruction of a total history soon is criticized then is philosophy of history, however this concept of total does not mean to display a direction only (telos), for the history of the humanity, and yes it means for the Analles that I assist through it and of the amplitude of documents together with social sciences it will make possible a history that can accumulate of stocks more historical reality of the humanity in such a way in its field politician, economic, cultural and social, and in this direction if becomes ampler, total, searching to capitar varies them dimensions and the directions of historical devir and surpassing the crisis with its capacity always to be in reconstruction and readjustment, therefore the humanity modifies and the methods for analyze? there they must modify for if not becoming inefficient and this that the Anallistas considered. .