Sale of cattle in Colombia cattle production systems in the country have been generated from the change of use of the ground by the deforestation of forests or through the change of areas of agricultural crops to pastures. In the livestock system design, it is common to use technologies that have been developed under different conditions without taking into account the specific conditions of the agroecosystem. This contributes to the generation of environmental and economic problems. The loss of soil fertility, pasture degradation, hidricas sources pollution, the increase in gas emissions with greenhouse effect and the low productivity of livestock farms are a reflection of the use of technologies that limit the potential for the production of meat and milk offered the tropics in its different agroecosystems. Access to new niche international markets makes it necessary to restructure the beef and milk production systems, not only to improve the quantity and quality of the products, but to access to Special markets where the conservation of natural resources and social and animal welfare are fundamental pillars.
An alternative to the sosteniblilidad of the bovine production is the establishment of Silvopastoral Systems, in which is incorporated the tree as a productive element that makes contributions to animal feed. In addition, generates positive relationships between the soil, pasture and animals. The tree increases the fertility of the soil through nutrient cycling (some species can fix nitrogen); improves the hydric balance; It reduces evaporation, heat stress in animals through the production of shadow, and CO2 emissions to fix it in the system. It also allows to diversify production (wood, firewood, fruits, among others). These benefits contribute to improve the profitability of the farm and, therefore, increase the sale of cattle in Coilombia. Silvopastoral systems reduce the impacts of the agro-ecosystem that can limit animal production. There are different alternatives for the incorporation of trees in livestock production systems, among which may be appointed living fences, scattered trees in pasture, fodder banks, grazing in forest or fruit plantations, pastures in alleys and windbreaks. In addition, these arrangements may include systems of two, three or more layers, formed with species herbaceous, shrubby and arboreal, selected according to a specific objective (production of forage, wood, firewood, shade, etc.) The design of Silvopastoral Systems, the positive and negative interactions between different components (soil, pasture, tree, animal) must be considered. Reference: Democratic incidence: Ministry of agriculture, livestock and